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Pharmacological Actions of Luo Han Guo Extract

Time : 2022-12-23 Hits : 46

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1. Clearing Away Heat and Moistening the Lungs, Relieving the Throat and Opening the Tone
Luo Han Guo has the traditional effects of clearing away heat and moistening the lungs, relieving the throat and opening the sound, which is reflected in the effect on the respiratory system. Song et al. found that mogroside V can reduce ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, specifically showing that mogroside V can reduce airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice, reduce the levels of interleukin-4, 5, 13 and serum Ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E, G1 levels. Studies by Tao et al. have shown that mogroside IIIE can inhibit pulmonary inflammation and extracellular matrix deposition by regulating the Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, and significantly prevent pulmonary fibrosis. Luo Han Guo also has the effect of relieving cough. Studies have shown that Luo Han Guo water extract and mogroside V can significantly reduce the number of coughs in mice and prolong the cough latency. Mogroside can also significantly increase the excretion of phenol red in the mouse trachea and antagonize the ileal contraction caused by histamine and tracheospasm. Liu Yan et al found that Luo Han Guo water extract can improve acute pharyngitis, and at the same time significantly inhibit the expression of interleukin-1β, 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the serum of model animals. In addition, studies have shown that Luo Han Guo IVE has the effect of alleviating liver fibrosis, and the mechanism may be to inhibit Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. The above studies have shown that various mogrosides have good therapeutic effects on respiratory diseases such as asthma, lung inflammation, cough and pharyngitis.

2. Laxative
Luo Han Guo has the traditional effect of laxative, manifested as an effect on the digestive system. Wang Qin et al found that Luo Han Guo water extract can enhance the spontaneous activity of isolated intestines of rabbits and dogs, and has an antagonistic effect on the contraction and relaxation of isolated intestines. In addition, the water extract of Luo Han Guo has a laxative effect on normal and constipated mice, and has an antispasmodic effect on the isolated small intestine. Research by Chen Yao and others found that Mogroside can increase the quantity, quality and ink propulsion rate of mouse defecation, and speed up defecation. The above results show that Luo Han Guo extract can improve the digestive system, mainly showing that it has a certain therapeutic effect on constipation.

3. Hypoglycemic and Blood Lipid Regulating Effects
Modern pharmacological studies have shown that the total flavonoids and saponins in Luo Han Guo have the effects of lowering blood sugar and regulating blood lipids. Among them, there are many studies on the hypoglycemic effect of mogroside, and the results show that kaempferin has a better hypoglycemic effect on alloxan-induced rats; mogroside IIIE can activate adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase). , AMPK) signaling pathway inhibits gestational diabetes; another study showed that mogroside can reduce blood sugar by inhibiting the conversion of glucose in food; Yu Wanqin et al found that mogroside extract can activate Keleh-like epichlorohydrin-related protein 1 - Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element pathway alleviates oxidative stress damage in gestational diabetic rats, thereby exerting a protective effect on pancreatic tissue. In vitro studies have shown that mogroside can improve the glycolipid toxicity of islet β cells and inhibit cell apoptosis. At the same time, Luo Han Guo also has the function of regulating fat and reducing weight: studies have shown that Luo Han Guo can reduce serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and low-density lipoprotein levels in model rats, and increase high-density lipoprotein levels. Song Xiaowan intervened obese mice with mogroside for 18 weeks, and found that mogroside could inhibit obesity, improve systemic glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, increase thermogenic gene expression, induce browning of white adipose tissue, and reduce adipose tissue inflammation. Liu et al. found that the hypoglycemic and lipid-regulating effects of mogroside may be related to attenuating insulin resistance and activating liver 5′ protein kinase signaling. In addition, studies have shown that mogrotol can inhibit fatty acid synthesis by activating the expression of cholesterol regulatory element binding protein and fatty acid synthase, which are related factors of AMPK signaling pathway in liver cancer HepG2 cells.

4. Liver Protection
Modern pharmacological studies have shown that mogroside has a certain hepatoprotective effect, among which there are many studies on anti-hepatic fibrosis. Studies have shown that the mechanism of mogroside’s anti-hepatic fibrosis may be to inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells and apoptosis of hepatic cells by inhibiting the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and type I collagen protein and mRNA, inhibit collagen production, and promote extracellular matrix degradation. In addition, studies by Xiao Gang and others have shown that mogroside has a protective effect on the acute liver injury caused by CCl4 in mice, and has a preventive effect on the chronic liver injury caused by CCl4 in rats. Luo Han Guo water extract can also significantly improve the intestinal flora of mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

5. Antioxidant Effect
Modern pharmacological studies have shown that both mogroside and mogroside polysaccharides have antioxidant effects, and there are more studies on mogroside. Qi Xiangyang et al found that mogroside can effectively scavenge free radicals, and has a protective effect on liver tissue peroxidative damage induced by Fe2+ and H2O2. Zhao Yan et al. found that the water extract of Luo Han Guo and mogroside could significantly increase the activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in high-fat model mice, and reduce the level of malondialdehyde. Xia Xing et al found that mogroside at 0.1-10 μg/mL can alleviate the decrease in the viability of PC12 nerve cells caused by oxidative stress and enhance the antioxidant capacity of PC12 nerve cells. Li Shan et al found that Luo Han Guo polysaccharide P-1 and polysaccharide P-2 have good scavenging effects on various free radicals, and their scavenging ability increases with the increase of polysaccharide concentration, among which polysaccharide P-1 has the strongest antioxidant activity. in polysaccharide P-2. In addition, the study found that Luo Han Guo extract can reduce the expression of cytochrome C oxidase 7A2 protein in rat testis tissue.

6. Anti-tumor Effect
Modern pharmacological studies have shown that Mogrosanol has anti-tumor effects. Mogrosanol can induce apoptosis and cycle arrest by regulating the expression of p21 and B lymphoma-2 genes, thereby promoting the apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells. Mogrosanol can also significantly inhibit the proliferation of prostate cancer DU145 cells, liver cancer HepG2 cells, lung cancer A549 cells, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 and CNE2 cells, among which the inhibitory effect on CNE1 cell proliferation is the most significant, and it is dose-related, probably by promoting Caspase-3, Bax protein and other pro-apoptotic genes and inhibit the expression of anti-apoptotic genes such as lymphoma/leukemia-2 and Survivin B to induce tumor cell apoptosis.

7. Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Effects
Modern pharmacological studies have shown that Luo Han Guo has an inhibitory effect on a variety of fungi, and also has a certain anti-inflammatory effect. The invasion of Gram-negative bacteria to the body will lead to the synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 induced by lipoproteins on the cell wall. Mogroside can inhibit the dislocation of nuclear factor κB caused by exogenous lipopolysaccharide by preventing the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway, thereby reducing lipoprotein-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 protein levels. Wang Haiyang et al. extracted and isolated three compounds, hexadecanoic acid, cyclo-(leucine-isoleucine) and sitosterol-3-O-glucose, from Luo Han Guo, and the research showed that all three compounds are harmful to the large intestine. Bacterial biofilms are inhibited. In addition, Luo Han Guo also has a certain inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Rhizopus and Aspergillus. Li et al. found that mogroside V plays an anti-inflammatory effect by blocking the activation, production and expression of nuclear factor κB, human CCAAT enhancer-binding protein δ, reactive oxygen species, and activator protein-1/heme oxygenase 1. Another study showed that mogroside IIE could improve pancreatitis in cell models and mice by down-regulating the interleukin-9 receptor pathway.

8. Other Functions
Studies have shown that Luo Han Guo can relieve fatigue, specifically manifested as significantly increasing the concentration of liver glycogen and muscle glycogen in fatigued mice; at the same time, it can also increase the testosterone content of rats after weight-bearing swimming training, improve substance metabolism, and significantly Improve the anti-exercise fatigue ability of rats. Studies by Nie et al. have shown that mogroside V can reduce the level of intracellular erythropoietin, enhance mitochondrial function, and promote the development of porcine oocyte IVM cells. At the same time, Momordica grosvenori also has the effect of regulating the nervous system. Studies have shown that mogroside V and its metabolite 11-oxidized mogrosinol can inhibit neuron damage induced by didrazepine maleate by promoting neurite growth and inhibiting apoptosis. And 11-oxidized mogrosinol can reverse the inactivation of protein kinase B and the phosphorylation level of mammalian target of rapamycin. Mogroside V can also increase activity in a mouse model of schizophrenia and regulate the impairment of prepulse inhibition in mice.

Source:
Tang Yuntong, Hou Xiaotao, Du Zhengcai, Hao Erwei, Zhang Tiejun, Deng Jiagang. Research progress on chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Luo Han Guo and its quality marker (Q-Marker) prediction analysis [J]. Chinese Herbal Medicine, 2021, 52(9): 2843-2850.